1.  The Hebrew Bible is also known as the Tanakh or the Hebrew Scriptures

2. This point is also expressed by Jewish CPE supervisor Rabbi Julie S. Schwartz when she writes:  “Each CPE term and nearly all of CPE’s history involves a Protestant worldview which must be confronted, considered and then evaluated for its appropriate integration by a Jew.”  Julie S. Schwartz, “Nearly There and Almost Included: Judaism and Pastoral Supervision”, Journal of Supervision and Training in Ministry, 2000, Vol. 20, p.162.

3. The expression that many Jews use is the Hebrew term tikun olam - literally, “repair of the world.” 

4. Martin Buber, The Way Of Man (New York: Citadel 1966), p.16.

5. The Talmud is the vast compendium of Jewish thought developed in the post-Biblical world between c. 200 Before the Common Era (BCE) and 600 in the Common Era (CE).   There are two Talmuds, the Babylonian Talmud that is the more authoritative, and the Jerusalem Talmud that is the more authoritative, and the Jerusalem Talmud.

6. Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 5b.

7. Babylonian Talmud Nedarim 39b.

8. The five books of Moses: Genesis, Exodus, Numbers, Leviticus, Deuteronomy.

9. Exodus 24:7.

10. Mishna Avot [“Wisdom of the Ancestors”] 2.16.  The Mishna was compiled c. 200 CE (in the Common Era).

11. Abraham Joshua Heschel, I Asked For Wonder (New York: Crossroad, 1991), p.88.

12. Leviticus 19:2.

13. Abraham Joshua Heschel, God In Search of Man: A Philosophy of Judaism (New York: Noonday, 1955), p.290.

14. In Hebrew, the Sh’ma or Deuteronomy 6:4.

15. Abraham Joshua Heschel, Quest For God: Studies in Prayer and Symbolism (New York: Crossroad, 1954), p.106.

16.  Neil Gillman, Sacred Fragments (New York and Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1990), p.xx.

17. Harry Kemelman, Monday the Rabbi Took Off (Greenwich, CT: Fawcett Crest, 1973 [1972]), p.186.

18.  Harry Kemelman, Sunday the Rabbi Stayed Home (New York: G. P. Putnam’s Sons, 1969), p.58.

19. See Encyclopedia Judaica (Jerusalem: Keter 1971). For a brief overview of contemporary American Jewish belief, the interested reader is referred to the wide-ranging discussion published a few years ago, David Berger, Saul J. Berman, David R. Blumenthal, and others.  “What Do American Jews Believe?  A Symposium,” Commentary 102:2 [August 1996]: pp.18-96.

20. This cultural and theological pattern is so ingrained in the subconscious of Jews that often it escapes their attention as well.

21. Bonita E Taylor, “Jewish Perspectives for Clinical Pastoral Supervision,” Journal of Supervision and Training in Ministry, 2001, Vol. 20.

22. Trude Weiss-Rosmarin, Judaism and Christianity ( New York: Jewish Book Club, 1947), p.54.

23. Ezekiel 18.

24. Jeremiah 31:29-30.

25. Deuteronomy 24:16.

26. Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 60b.

27. Cf. Ephesians 2:8; Romans 3:21ff, 4:4ff.

28. Babylonian Talmud Berakhot 5a.

29. Ezekiel 18:30-32.

30. Weiss-Rosmarin, p. 61, quoting Babylonian Talmud Shabbat 32a.

31. Mishna Yoma 8.9.

32. David J. Zucker,  American Rabbis: Facts and Fiction (Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson, 1998), p.277.

33.  Zucker, p.102.

34.  Deborah Tannen, “New York Conversational Style” in International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 1981, Vol. 30, p.137.  Among many characteristics, Tannen mentions specifically “faster rate of speech”, “faster turntaking” among speakers, “cooperative overlap”, “tell stories in rounds” and “preferred point of a story is teller’s emotional experience.”

35. Deborah Tannen, “Talking New York”, New York , September 24, 1990 , p.72.

36. Deborah Tannen, “New York Conversational Style”, p.138.

37. Deborah Tannen, “Talking New York: It’s Not What You Say, It’s The Way That You Say It”, New York , March 30, 1981 , p.30.

38. Genesis 18:25.

39. Exodus 33:18.

40. The Midrash is a collection of rabbinic sermons and interpretations of the Bible and Jewish law compiled between c. 400- 1550 CE.

© 2004 , Bonita E Taylor & David J. Zucker



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